Le mura poligonali dell’Acropoli di Alatri, di origine megalitica, sono oggetto da anni di un malinteso relativo alla loro datazione, secondo il quale sarebbero da attribuire alla mano degli antichi Romani. Solo attraverso studi indipendenti sarà possibile ristabilire la verità sull’origine di un sito così controverso, la cui tecnica costruttiva nulla ha a che fare con quella utilizzata dai Romani. Il video mostra la giornata internazionale di studio organizzato il 21 giugno 2015 all’alba del Solstizio d’Estate sull’Acropoli di Alatri a cui hanno partecipato Robert Bauval, Sandro Zicari, Chiara Dainelli, Paolo Debertolis e Daniele Gullà.


The Wizard Gandalf of The Lord of the Ring by  J.R.R. Tolkien

The Wizard Gandalf of The Lord of the Ring by J.R.R. Tolkien

Wizards are often represented with a high, pointed hat and, sometimes decorated with stars and planets. Georges Ivanovič Gurdjieff, in his Scenario of the Ballet “The Struggle of the Magicians”, describes wizard’s dressing and, specifically, his hat:

“The Magician takes off his garment, receives some unguent from one of his pupils, smears it over his body, resumes his garment and over his usual dress puts on a robe withvery wide sleeves. The robe is bordered all round with the signs of the Zodiac; on the back is embroidered the symbol of the pentagram, on the breast a skull and crossbones. On his head he places a high pointed head-dress embroidered with large and small stars.”

In the episode “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice” by Paul Dukas, based on Goethe’s 1797 poem “Der Zauberlehrling” of the movie “Fantasia” by Walt Disney, Mickey Mouse, young apprentice of the sorcerer Yen Sid, wears precisely the hat as described by Gurdjieff.

“The Sorcerer's Apprentice”  by Walt Disney

“The Sorcerer’s Apprentice” by Walt Disney

The encounter, one more time, happened “by chance” at Neues Museum (world-renowned for Egyptian Nefertiti bust) in Berlin, Germany. At Ground Floor of the museum, I bumped into a glass case containing the Berliner GoldenHut, the Berlin Gold Hat.


Berlin Gold Hat - Neues Museum - Berlin

Berlin Gold Hat – Neues Museum – Berlin

The Berlin Gold hat is a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Europe. So far, four such objects (“cone-shaped gold hats of the Schifferstadt type”) are known. The objects are made of thin sheet gold and were attached externally to long conical and brimmed headdresses which were probably made of some organic material and served to stabilise the external gold leaf. The following Golden Hats are known:

  • Golden Hat of Schifferstadt, found in 1835 at Schifferstadt near Speyer, circa 1400–1300 BC;
  • Avanton Gold Cone, incomplete, found at Avanton near Poitiers in 1844, circa 1000–900 BC;
  • Golden Cone of Ezelsdorf, found near Nuremberg in 1953, circa 1000–900 BC;
  • Berlin Gold Hat, found probably in Swabia or Switzerland, circa 1000–800 BC.


The four Golden Hats

The four Golden Hats

The Golden Hats served as religious insignia for the deities or priests of a sun cult then widespread in Central Europe. Wilfried Menghin, in his “Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica”, verified that the ornamentation of the gold leaf cones of the Schifferstadt type, to which the Berlin example belongs, represent a lunisolar calendar. The object would have permitted the determination of dates or periods in both lunar and solar calendars.

Luni-Solar Calendar on Berlin Gold Hat

Luni-Solar Calendar on Berlin Gold Hat

The functions discovered so far would permit the counting of temporal units of up 57 months. A simple multiplication of such values would also permit the calculation of longer periods, e.g. metonic cycles. Each symbol, or each ring of a symbol, represents a single day.



The Balteus, the standard belt worn by the Roman legionary, used to tuck clothing into or to hold weapons, is one of the typical ornaments of kings, dignitaries and winners. Why has this accessory become a symbol of greatness?

Screenshot 2014-12-24 12.45.57

One more time, I’ll try to give an astronomical-astrological explanation of this symbol. The Sun, King of Gods in ancient Tradition, goes from East to West, during the day, and, like the planets, moves around the Zodiac. In fact, the Sun does not wander all over the sky but is confined to a narrow strip, dividing it in half. Stars along that strip (the ecliptic) are traditionally divided into the 12 constellations. The ecliptic plane is tilted 23.5° with respect to the plane of the celestial equator since the Earth’s spin axis is tilted 23.5° with respect to its orbit around the Sun. The name, related to “zoo,” comes because most of these constellations are named for animals–Leo the lion, Aries the ram, Scorpio the scorpion, Cancer the crab, Pisces the fish, Capricorn the goat and Taurus the bull.

Il percorso del Sole e dei segni zodiacali lungo l'eclittica solare inclinata

The path of the Sun and Zodiacal Signs along the tilted ecliptic

The Zodiacal Belt was often depicted on handicrafts and on clothes in order to symbolize the relationship between the man wearing it and the Sun, and to link him with it. Nowadays it is still possible to see an example at Vatican Museum, in Rome: the Helios Chiaramonti.

Helios Chiaramonti - Musei Vaticani - Roma

Helios Chiaramonti – Vatican Museum – Rome

Helios, the Sun God, is wearing a Zodiacal Balteus, with the Zodiacal Signs, from the right shoulder to the left hip and represents the Sun and its bound path along the ecliptic.


The Mith of Transition from the Age of Taurus to the Age of Aries

The Mith of Achelous , the Bull God, symbol of the age of Taurus (4000 b.C. – 2000 b.C.) defeated by Hercules (the Sun) and the coming of Zeus Ammon, the Ram God (2000 b.C. – 0 C.E.).

The god of the river Achelous which was the greatest, and according to tradition, the most ancient among the rivers of Greece. He with 3000 brother-rivers is described as a son of Oceanus and Thetys (Hes. Theog. 340), or of Oceanus and Gaea, or lastly of Helios and Gaea. (Natal. Com. vii. 2.)

Achelous, the Bull God

Achelous, the Bull God


Rising of Sun at Vernal Equinox in Taurus Constellation (4000 b.C. – 2000 b.C.)


The origin of the river Achelous is thus described by Servius (ad Virg. Georg. i. 9; Aen. viii. 300): When Achelous on one occasion had lost his daughters, the Sirens, and in his grief invoked his mother Gaea, she received him to her bosom, and on the spot where she received him, she caused the river bearing his name to gush forth. Other accounts about the origin of the river and its name are given by Stephanus of Byzantium, Strabo (x. p. 450), and Plutarch. (De Flum. 22.) Achelous the god was a competitor with Heracles in the suit for Deïaneira, and fought with him for the bride. Achelous was conquered in the contest, but as he possessed the power of assuming various forms, he metamorphosed himself first into a serpent and then into a bull. But in this form too he was conquered by Heracles, and deprived of one of his horns, which however he recovered by giving up the horn of Amalthea. (Ov. Met. ix. 8, &c.; Apollod. i. 8. § 1, ii. 7. § 5.)

Zeus Ammon

Zeus Ammon


Rising of Sun at Vernal Equinox in Aries Constellation (2000 b.C. – 0 C.E.)